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Constitution of the Republic of Estonia.

Type of law
Date of original text

Estonia is an independent and sovereign democratic republic wherein supreme political authority is vested in the people. The independence and sovereignty of Estonia are timeless and inalienable (Article 1). The land, territorial waters and airspace of Estonia constitute an inseparable and indivisible whole (Article 2). The natural wealth and resources of Estonia are national riches which must be used economically (Article 5). It consists of 168 Articles divided into 15 Chapters: General Principles (I);Fundamental Rights, Freedoms and Duties (II); The People (III); The Riigikogu (Legislative Authority) (IV); The President (V); The Government of the Republic (VI); Legislation (VII); Finance and the National Budget (VIII); Foreign Relations and International Treaties (IX); National Defence (X); The National Audit Office (XI); The Chancellor of Justice (XII); The Courts (XIII); Local Self-Government (XIV); and Amendments of the Constitution (XV). Everyone is entitled to protection of his or her health. Every citizen of Estonia is entitled to government assistance in the case of old age, incapacity for work, loss of provider, or need. The categories and extent of the assistance, and the conditions and procedure for its allocation are provided by law. Unless otherwise provided by law, citizens of foreign states and stateless persons in Estonia enjoy this right equally with citizens of Estonia. The national government facilitates voluntary provision of welfare services and provision of welfare services by local authorities. Families with a large number of children as well as people with disabilities enjoy special care of the national government and of local authorities (Article 28). The Government of the Republic in the case of a natural disaster or a catastrophe, or to prevent the spread of an infectious disease, declares a state of emergency in the entire national territory or a part thereof (Article 87).
Date of consolidation/reprint
Entry into force notes
The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia enters into force on 03 July 1992.
Source language


Legislation Amendment
Original title
P hiseadus.