Definitions

The act, process or industry of extracting coal, ores, etc. from the earth (Source: GEMET/CED), including the search for economic deposits of minerals, ore, gas, oil, or coal by geological surveys, geophysical prospecting, boreholes and trial pits, or surface or underground headings, drifts, or tunnels. (Source: GEMET/MGH)

Hierarchy
Narrower: artisanal mining
Related terms:
extractive industry
mineral exploitation
mineral exploration
mineral extraction