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National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management, 2009.

Type of law

This National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management (NSDRM) approved in 2009 is a national framework with commitment of the Government of Nepal on reducing disaster risks. Inherent objective of the strategy is to guide towards reducing disasters in the process of execution of development programs for national development. The Strategy has provided a roadmap for all the sectors to prepare sector-specific programs on disaster management and formulate necessary policy decisions in facilitating disaster mainstreaming into sectoral development planning process. Based on the identified gaps and issues for each of priorities for action that are in line with HFA priorities, the NSDRM has proposed and recommended strategies to be taken for disaster management in Nepal.
Concerning reducing rural poverty, the National Strategy recognizes that it is necessary to link disaster related issues with poverty reduction program and MDG. The key elements addresses: improve physical as well as social infrastructure in the rural areas with access to poor and disadvantaged groups; develop and deliver livelihood protection package programs for poor & excluded groups; expand saving & credit cooperatives and financial institutions to create more livelihood options, choices, and opportunities; create employment and income opportunities along with the promotion of farm-based or off-farm enterprises; develop and implement programs that contribute to the local livelihood diversifications, and prepare and practice Cash-for-Work (CFW), and Cash-for-Training (CFT) programs; establish beneficiaries participating M & E System; promote through the existing extension systems the establishment of national platforms for applied action research and demonstration to introduce, test and disseminate good practices for DRM in Agriculture, including the promotion of Local Farmers Organizations and Community Based Organizations (CBOs) in implementing community based disaster risk management approach; promote insurance practices for crops, and livestock in participation of private sector.
Concerning disasters risk reduction and management, the National Strategy has a multi-hazard focus as Nepal is highly vulnerable to various types of disasters like floods, landslides, earthquakes, fires, epidemics, and effects of climate change. It adopts a twin track approach and identifies five priorities: (i) put a vibrant institutional framework in place for its implementation by prioritizing disaster risk reduction at both the national and local levels; (ii) strengthen assessment, identification, monitoring, and early warning system on potential disaster; (iii) make use of knowledge, new ideas, and education for the development of safety and disaster resilient culture at all levels; (iv) minimize existing risk factors; and (v) make disaster preparedness strong enough for effective response. Sectoral strategies for DRR are recommended to concerned sectors based on natures of tasks of those sectors for preparedness, mitigation, or response arrangements in situations of disasters, and emergencies. Key strategic activities for disaster reduction and management (DRM) in Agriculture and Food Security sector include: develop a national plan for Disaster Preparedness and Emergency response for the Agricultural sector, with district and community level plans included for areas highly exposed to recurrent hazard risk, through a participatory dialogue with all stakeholders; establish a simple crop and livestock monitoring system and database in high risk areas to establish a basis for better emergency needs assessment and response; establish floods and landslides related early warning system for local level in collaboration with Department of Water Induced Disaster Prevention (DWIDP); strengthen agricultural research institutions to conduct strategic, applied research to identify and promote on farmers fields the testing of new technologies for DRM in agriculture; improve local storage practice (farm level food, animal feed, local seeds storage systems) through introduction of storage standards; develop the seed bank and seed storage system at the national level with strategic importance; encourage to convert landslide areas into plantations, and discourage settlements in flood prone areas; ensure adequate emergency supply of food/ seeds in the disaster prone areas in time of need and ensure post-disaster effective supply system. Key elements of the sectoral strategy for Forests and Soil Conservation are: mainstream DRM into periodic, and annual development programs; establish a forest fire control and monitoring unit; document DRM related good practices and local experiments; give emphasis to mobilization of all types of local Users' Groups for rehabilitation of community level basic infrastructures like water resource, irrigation and dug channels etc. Strategic Activities for DRM in Search & Rescue (SAR), Damage Assessment and Need Analysis (DANA) further addresses ensuring budgetary allocation for SAR and DANA, including defined process and guidelines for local participation and local resource mobilization.
A new organizational structure is proposed by focusing on establishing Nepal as a Disaster Resilient Community. A National Council for Disaster Management (NCDM) shall be formed, which can give a broader look to mainstreaming DRR while giving high priority to risks reduction in development activities. A National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) shall be established as a National Focal Point for implementation, facilitation, coordination, and monitoring of Disaster Management Strategies. In addition, the National Strategy delineates the scope of work, and rights and responsibilities of regional, district, and local disaster management committees. NDMA will publish its annual progress report and made it public. Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) shall monitor, evaluate, and regulate the tasks of NDMA. MoHA will also conduct performance evaluation of all regional, district, and local level Disaster Management Committees through NDMA.
Date of text
Publication reference
Ministry of Home Affairs.
Source language


Legislation Amendment