The Imported Motor Vehicle Industry Association (IMVIA) sought judicial review of the Transport Ministry’s emissions standards for used cars imported into New Zealand. New Zealand has no domestic car manufacturing industry and imports its vehicles. In 2007, the Transport Ministry opted for a rule that would implement an emissions standard for used imports, in lieu of an outright rolling age ban on used cars. The IMVIA objected to the ministry’s approach, claiming that in practice it would actually increase the average age of the nation’s fleet and would do nothing to reduce pollution. After examining the rulemaking process, the court dismissed the IMVIA’s application for review.