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Pakistan's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (PAK-INDC).

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The Pak-INDC (Pakistan s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution) is rooted in the country s strategic plan Vision 2025 . It is aligned with the respective policies, plans and sectoral growth targets set by various ministries and other government entities. Pak-INDC Report is being submitted by Pakistan in compliance with its obligations under the UNFCCC process and in recognition of its responsibility to the comity of nations. It demonstrates the country s resolve to respect the COP-21 mandate and to highlight its commitment to addressing the issues of climate change and associated challenges (pag. 3).
Adoption of the Paris Agreement has further reinforced the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC and has provided a framework for its realization in a more intense manner with a long-term perspective. The global consensus on limiting temperature increase to below 2 degrees Centigrade is an endorsement of the scientific conclusions reached by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and provides safeguards for vulnerable regions and countries of the world from irreversible adverse consequences. In doing so, the urgent need for undertaking adaptation measures by all groups of countries has also been underscored. Moreover, it needs to be recognized that without provision of adequate finance, technology development and transfer and capacity building, the consequences for developing countries are likely to remain catastrophic (pag. 5).
Pakistan s response to the challenges of global warming and climate change has been closely aligned with its strategies for sustainable development, environmental protection, sustainable development goals (SDGs) and objectives of the Convention on Climate Change. Adoption of the National Climate Change Policy and National Disaster Risk Reduction Policy in 2012 provided a comprehensive framework for policy goals and actions towards mainstreaming climate change, especially in economically and socially vulnerable sectors of the economy. A follow-up to these policies was the launch in 2013 of the Framework for Implementation of the Climate Change Policy (2014-2030), which outlines the vulnerabilities of various sectors to climate change and identifies appropriate adaptation and mitigation actions. The Framework document was developed to serve as a catalyst for mainstreaming climate change concerns into decision-making at national and sub-national levels and to create an enabling environment for an integrated climate-compatible development process. The document promotes preparation of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP), Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), future National Communications to the UNFCCC as well as detailed sub-national adaptation action plans (pag. 11).
Pak-INDC broadly articulates the major challenges faced by the country, which are likely to intensify in future as a result of climate-induced variability and natural disasters. Actions already underway for reducing GHG emissions and adaptation by way of managing disasters and building resilience capacities are also enunciated. These actions represent Pakistan s contribution to the global effort towards meeting the ultimate UNFCCC objectives (pag. 5). There is widespread potential for mitigation in all sectors of the national economy. Based on a review of existing literature and available secondary data, an estimation of overall mitigation potential has been reached presenting options for mitigation in different sectors, such as, Energy: an overview of mitigation potential and mitigation options in two key emission-generating sectors of the economy are presented in the document. Mitigation Options in Agriculture Sector, focusing on ensuring food security and poverty alleviation for a continuously increasing population. Greenhouse Gas Inventory; Land Use Change and Forestry; Waste; Land Use Change and Forestry; Industrial Processes, etc. (pags. 16-26).
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