The instruments of „acceptance“ or „approval“ of a treaty have the same legal effect as ratification and consequently express the consent of a state to be bound by a treaty. In the practice of certain states, acceptance and approval have been used instead of ratification when, at a national level, constitutional law does not require the treaty to be ratified by the head of state. (Source: Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969, Arts.2 (1) (b) and 14 (2))

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