The Audit Board of the Republic of Indonesia was charged with assessing the effectiveness of water resources management activities for the Citarum River. From 2009 to 2012, the Audit Board met with a variety of agencies, experts, and stakeholders to assess the river basin’s water management. The Audit Board used advanced technologies, including geographic information systems and water sampling, to assess land use and land cover and to identify likely sources of water pollution. In completing the performance audit, the Audit Board encountered several difficulties, notably grappling with the diversity of institutions involved in the river’s management, the complex roles these institutions played in water management, and the difficulty of synchronizing the wide variety of regulations that applied to river management. After many consultations and convening meetings with the diverse set of authorities and stakeholders, the agency recommended that the national government implement new regulations already authorized under existing legislation to better address water quality and undertake planning to address domestic sewage treatment and disposal, particularly in urban areas. The auditing agency’s independence from existing institutions and its ability to undertake a broad review of the river’s management allowed it to make comprehensive recommendations, free from existing institutional politics or priorities.