India’s National Green Tribunal was created in 2010 to hear civil cases that involve a substantial environmental question. The Tribunal has appellate jurisdiction over cases as well, and appeals of its decisions go directly to India’s Supreme Court. The Tribunal is composed of justices as well as experts with technical and practical expertise in environmental matters. The Tribunal’s standing requirements allow very open access to the court. Persons may bring claims in the public interest even if they have no direct, personal connection to the matter.
In 2009 and 2010, the Gujarat Pollution Control Board in India used a third-party audit system for plants with high potential to pollute as part of its regulatory program. Under this system, auditors visited the plant and took samples three times over the course of a year, then submitted an audit report to the Pollution Control Board that could serve as the basis for regulatory action.