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Philippines
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Philippines

In the Philippines, ocean and marine industries are vital to the economy. In 2016 alone, coastal and marine tourism contributed close to $3 billion USD, nearly 2%, of total GDP in the Philippines, and employed close to 900,000 people (SEA Circular, 2020). Likewise, fisheries and aquaculture generated over $2.3 billion USD, around 1.5% of the GDP), with 260,000 people employed in this sector.

Keywords:
Environmental Rule of Law, Land-based marine pollution, Marine debris, Marine pollution, Plastic waste, waste management
Increasing Income and Forest Cover through Community Involvement
Philippines

Forest cover in the Nueva Vizcaya region of the Philippines declined from 85 percent to 25 percent from the early 1980s to the early 2000s due to legal and illegal logging. The Philippines government undertook the Trees for Legacy Program, which included several measures to involve the community in reforestation and watershed protection. It used the country’s Local Government Code of 1991 to co-manage local forests with local government units.

Keywords:
Access to information, deforestation, illegal logging, public awareness, Public participation, reforestation, rural development, Stakeholder engagement