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Czech National Council Act no. 114/1992 on the Protection of Nature and the Landscape.

Type of law
Date of original text

This Act is intended to contribute to the protection of biodiversity, natural beauty and the economic management of natural resources. As listed in Part One, the means for achieving this end include the establishment of protected areas, the protection of wild plants and animals, the protection of wood species outside of forests, water resources management, etc. The Act makes frequent reference to a "system of ecological stability," which is defined in this part as a "mutually integrated complex of natural and changed-though nearly natural ecosystems, which maintain a natural stability".
Part Two specifies general obligations to conserve nature, including the obligation to protect landscape components from damage and destruction.
Part Three establishes four categories of protected areas, including national parks, protected landscape areas, national nature reserves and nature reserves, and sets forth specific rules and other provisions regarding each category. Perhaps the most unusual of these categories is the protected landscape area, which is defined as "extensive territories with a harmoniously formed landscape, a characteristically developed relief, a significant share of natural ecosystems of forest and permanent grass growth, with abundant wood species or with preserved monuments of historical settlement." Activities within such areas are to correspond to zones of graded protection. Subsequent sections of the act deal with protected trees, plants and animals (Part Four), and limitations on property rights, financial contributions, public participation and right to information (Part Five). The latter part contains provisions on the expropriation of property for nature protection purposes, the state's right of first refusal in the case of the sale of not builton land, and the use of the State Environment Fund to finance such acquisitions. It also requires any person intending to undertake "consequential interventions" which could affect interests protected under the Act to arrange at his own expense for a "biological assessment" of the proposed activity.
Nature conservation authorities are also given the power to enter into agreements with owners or tenants of land for nature conservation purposes. Part Six allocates administrative responsibilities between various "nature conservation authorities", namely communities, district offices, national park administrations, the Czech Environment Inspection, and the Ministry of Environment.
Part Seven establishes fines and penalties for contravention of the Act.
Date of consolidation/reprint
Entry into force notes
This Act enters into force on 1 June 1992.
Serial Imprint
Collection of Laws No. 114/1992
Source language


Legislation Amendment
Original title
Z kon esk n rodn rady o ochran p rody a krajiny.
Implemented by